Vision is imortant at every stage of life. Comprehensive eye care aims to ensure that people have access to eye care services that meet their needs at every stage of life. This includes not only prevention and treatment services, but also vision rehabilitation. Comprehensive eye care also aims to address the full spectrum of eye diseases.

Eye care is important for everyone, even for those who do not have any eye disease. Your eyes are one of the most complex organs in your body. A comprehensive eye exam to assess your visual system and eye health involves a number of different of tests. Unlike a simple vision screening, which only assesses your vision, a comprehensive eye exam includes a battery of tests in order to do a complete evaluation of the health of your eyes and your vision.

Why it is important to have a Comprehensive Eye Exam?

In today's hactic life we don't have time to focus on our health untill we caught by a specific disease. There are many diseases which are a big reason to worry as they are very difficult to cure 100%, for example Glaucoma, Steven Johnson Syndrome(SJS). There could be hundreds of reasons for such diseases.

For instance let's talk about GLAUCOMA(काला मोतिया ). This is also known as silent thief of vision. It steel your vison silently and you will never realize that something is happening to your vision. You will think that you need specticals to correct your vision but actually it is something different. With the gradual lose of vision you will realize that you are in trouble and when you will realize this it will be too late. So comprehensive eye care exam include full spectrum of test like eye pressure etc which covers all indications of any disastorus disease and we know in begining that what we have to take care about as well as if there is something serious diagnose we can controll that before its early stage.

The common exams that you may encounter at Manocha Eye Hospital:

Patient Background and History Visual Acuity Refraction Retinoscopy Autorefractors and Aberrometers Eye Focusing and Eye Teaming Tests Eye Health Slit Lamp Test Tonometry Pupil Dilation

Patient Background

One of the most important parts in a comprehensive eye exam is your patient health history. This information will alert your doctor to any conditions that should be monitored closely, such as an allergy to any medications, current or family history of systemic or eye pathology or environmental conditions that could be affecting your vision or eye health. This will also help your doctor to determine any preventative eye care measures that are relevant to keep your eyes healthy for years to come.

Visual Acuity (Snellen Eye Chart Test)

Visual acuity is a measurement of your vision using an eye chart, the Snellen Eye Chart. In this test the patient is seated at a standard distance and is asked to read letters or symbols of various sizes, which get smaller as you move down the chart. The results are the familiar ratio of 20/20, 20/40 etc. which is a comparison of your vision compared to the average person with good vision, which is typically 20/20. For example, a patient that has 20/40 vision, can only see at 20 feet what the normal person can see from a distance of 40 feet. This test is a preliminary test of how clearly you are seeing in each eye but it does not give you a prescription for corrective lenses.


Those who don’t have 20/20 vision have what is referred to in most cases as a “Refractive Error.” The patient may have nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism or other eye conditions that prevent the patient from seeing 20/20. A refraction will tell the doctor which prescription lenses will correct your eyesight to achieve 20/20 vision or whichever amount your vision is correctable to.

A refraction may include a couple of steps.


Retinoscopy is a test that allows the doctor to obtain an approximate prescription for eyeglasses. In this test the doctor uses a hand-held instrument called a retinoscope that shines a light into the patient’s eye. The doctor then analyzes the reflex of the light from the patient’s eye to determine the patient’s prescription for glasses.

Eye Focusing and Eye Teaming Tests

During the comprehensive eye exam, your eye doctor will also want to test how your eyes function individually and together from a mechanical perspective. In order to see clearly and comfortably, your eyes need to work together as a team.

Autorefractors and Aberrometers

Autorefractors and aberrometers are computerized machines that are able to measure your refractive error to determine your prescription for glasses or contact lenses. These instruments are usually used in addition to testing described earlier. An autorefractor is similar to retinoscopy, which electronically analyses the light reflex from the patient’s eye.

Eye Health

The final and most important aspect of a comprehensive eye exam is a check of your overall eye health. These tests (below) are done to identify any eye conditions or diseases, both inside the eye as well as the external parts of the eye, that could affect your vision and general health.

Slit Lamp Test

The slit lamp or biomicroscope is an instrument that allows the doctor to examine the internal and external parts of the eye in detail, such as the conjunctiva, iris, lens, cornea, retina and the optic nerve. The patient rests their forehead and chin on a headrest to stabilize the head, while the doctor looks into the eye with the slit lamp microscope, which is magnified with a high-intensity light. A slit lamp test enables the doctor to evaluate the eyes for signs of normal aging and eye pathology, such as conjunctivitis, cataracts, macular degeneration or retinal detachment. Early diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases are essential for preventing vision loss.


Tonometry is a test to detect glaucoma by measuring the pressure inside your eye or IOP (intraocular pressure). Glaucoma can cause vision loss and even blindness if the IOP in the eye is too high and damages the optic nerve.

The applanation tonometer, typically attached to a slit lamp, is one of the most common instruments used to measure the pressure in the eye. Prior to doing this test the doctor will numb the patient’s eyes using an anesthetic, before gently applanating (putting pressure on) the patient’s cornea to measure the pressure in the eye.

Pupil Dilation

During your comprehensive eye exam, your doctor may decide to do a dilated eye exam. In this test, your doctor will instill dilating drops in each eye, which would enlarge your pupils to give the doctor a better view of certain parts of the back of the eye. Dilation is done at the discretion of the doctor, with some patients dilated every year and others at specified intervals; the frequency of dilation will vary for each patient.

Myths / Frequently Asked Questions

1Why is a regular eye exam so important?
Answer: Regardless of your age or physical health, a comprehensive eye exam is important for detecting any eye problems at their early stages. Even if you have 20/20 vision, an eye exam can be a measure of overall health. The eyes are the only part of the body where arteries and veins can be viewed without having to perform surgery. Eyecare providers can see signs of stroke, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, brain tumors, multiple sclerosis and more, through an eye exam.
In addition, they can determine whether a person with age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa or cataracts is suffering also from low vision, which is a condition associated with these age-related eye diseases.
2What happens during an eye exam?
Answer: During a comprehensive eye exam, your eye doctor will not only determine if you require a prescription for eyeglasses, but they will also check your eyes for common eye diseases, assess how your eyes work together as a team and evaluate your eyes as indicators of your overall health.
3What does the eye chart actually measure?
Answer: One of the basic measurements most everyone is familiar with is the Snellen chart for 20/20 vision – a term used to express normal visual acuity (the clarity or sharpness of vision) measured at a distance of 20 feet.
With 20/20 vision, individuals can see at 20 feet clearly what should be seen normally at that distance. Most individuals ought to visit a low vision specialist when vision reaches 20/70 or worse. With 20/70 vision, an individual must be as close as 20 feet to see what a person with normal vision can see at 70 feet.